In Pliny's tale of the origin of painting "[a] luminous flame as a means of casting the shadow of the body before it, a drawn outline as a means of capturing the evanescent image of that body, a sculptural cast as a means of reconstituting and concretizing something of the lost body [...]" (p.2)
"For the death mask is a sculptural object, a memorial object, formed from a mold set upon th very face of the dead. Its anemnetic power derives not just from the likeness, but from contact, from touch."
"In sum, silhouettes and casts, photography and even film, all of these methods of representation, which distant origins we encounter in Pliny's mythic tale, are predicated on their contagious relation to their subjects, their physical relation to the material world." (p.12)
In many of the proposals for the World Trade Center memorial "light, vapor and water were the consistent elements of designs that sought to mark a place for memory." (p.20) In Michael Arad's design perpetual cascades of water acted to "repeat something of the structure of the horrifying video loop that blocked, displaced or simply became out memory of the event, representation replacing the real." (p.22)
In Pliny's tale the silhouette is traced in preparation for loss, "as a mnemonic device". (p.23)